Key pathologies



  • Pathogens: HBV and HCV (the primary causes of chronic hepatitis)

Public health issues:

  • HBV and HCV responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year
  • Hepatitis: 5-10% of liver transplants

Respiratory diseases


  • tuberculosis, influenza, pneumonia, RSV infection and legionellosis
  • Priority on tuberculosis

Public health issues associated with tuberculosis:

  • 8-10 million new cases per year
  • 2-3 million deaths per year
  • 2 billion individuals infected by Mycobacterium (high risk of reactivation and transmission of virus)
  • Strong synergy with HIV
  • Dramatic increase in multidrug resistance (MDR and XDR).

Nosocomial diseases


  • E. coli , S. Aureus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp., coagulase-negative staphylococci, Candida spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp, Clostridium difficile
  • Priority on S. Aureus

Public health issues (estimated figures from ECDC):

  • Risk of contracting an infection in hospital: 7%
  • 4,450,000 individuals infected per year
  • 40,000 deaths per year

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